University of Michigan Summary: It's been known for decades that animals such as chimpanzees seek out medicinal herbs to treat their diseases.
But in recent years, the list of animal pharmacists has grown much longer, and it now appears that the practice of animal self-medication is a lot more widespread than previously thought, according to ecologists.
But in recent years, the list of animal pharmacists has grown much longer, and it now appears that the practice of animal self-medication is a lot more widespread than previously thought, according to a University of Michigan ecologist and his colleagues.
The fact that moths, ants and fruit flies are now known to self-medicate has profound implications for the ecology and evolution of animal hosts and their parasites, according to Mark Hunter, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and at the School of Natural Resources and Environment.
In addition, because plants remain the most promising source of future pharmaceuticals, studies of animal medication may lead the way in discovering new drugs to relieve human suffering, Hunter and two colleagues wrote in a review article titled "Self-Medication in Animals," to be published online today in the journal Science.
One recent study has suggested that house sparrows and finches add high-nicotine cigarette butts to their nests to reduce mite infestations.
But less attention has been given to the many cases in which animals medicate their offspring or other kin, according anti parasite natural health Hunter and his colleagues.
Wood ants incorporate an antimicrobial resin from conifer trees into their nests, preventing microbial growth in the colony.
Parasite-infected monarch butterflies protect nemi szerven lévő szemölcs kezelése offspring against high levels of parasite growth by laying their eggs on anti-parasitic milkweed.
For one, when animal medication reduces the health of parasites, there should be observable effects on parasite transmission or virulence.
For example, when gypsy moth caterpillars consume foliage high in certain toxic compounds, transmission of viruses between the caterpillars is reduced, facilitating moth outbreaks. In addition, animal medication should affect the evolution of animal immune systems, according to Hunter and his colleagues. Honeybees are known to incorporate antimicrobial resins into their nests.
Analysis of the honeybee genome suggests that they lack many of the immune-system genes of other insects, raising the possibility that honeybees' use of medicine has been partly responsible -- or has compensated -- for a loss of other immune mechanisms. The authors also note that the study of animal medication will have direct relevance for human food production.
- Vastagbél tisztítja a méregtelenítést
- Bár kevésbbé ismert az európai gyógyszeriparban, ahol inkább a Hydrastis canadensi-t használják, a Coptis chinensis Kínában jól ismert és széles körben használva van, még a Ming dinasztia óta.
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- Self-medication in animals much more widespread than believed -- ScienceDaily
- The cereal was not treated to protect against fungal infestations or against insect parasites.
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Disease problems in agricultural organisms can worsen when humans interfere with the ability of animals to medicate, they point out. For anti parasite natural health, increases in parasitism and disease in honeybees can be linked to selection by beekeepers for reduced resin deposition by their bees. A reintroduction of such behavior in managed bee colonies would likely have great benefits for disease management, the authors say.
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- Papillomavírus és a szülés terhessége
- Metrics details Abstract Sex-biassed and age-biassed parasite infections are common in nature, including ectoparasites-vertebrate host systems.
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- Replication of the pathogen in the host usually results in a disease or death of the host, which leads to the death of the intracellular parasite as well, unless the pathogen has already spread to a new susceptible host.
- élősködő — Translation in English - TechDico
Journal Reference: J. Lefevre, M. Self-Medication in Animals. Science, ; : DOI: